Bromley Emergency

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So far Bromley Emergency has created 82 blog entries.

Core Physiology: Cerebral blood flow

Question.

Which one of the following is NOT correct regarding the cerebral circulation?

  1. Cerebral oxygen consumption is about 20% of total body oxygen consumption
  2. The brain uses glucose as its main energy source
  3. Autoregulation maintains a constant cerebral blood flow for mean arterial pressures (MAP) between 60-160mmHg.
  4. Cerebral blood flow is very sensitive to arterial pO2
  5. Local metabolites, ADP, K+ and H+ ions, all increase cerebral blood flow

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2017-06-12T13:51:17+00:00 May 22nd, 2017|FRCEM Primary, FRCEM PrImary Blog|

Core Physiology: Laryngeal anatomy.

Question.

Regarding the anatomy of the larynx, which one of the following statements is FALSE?

  1. It joins the top of the trachea at the level of C6
  2. The vocal cords lie inferior to the epiglottis
  3. The glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) provides both motor and sensory innervation to the larynx
  4. The vocal cords abduct during respiration but adduct during phonation
  5. The cricoid cartilage lies below the thyroid cartilage

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2017-05-22T13:38:09+00:00 May 22nd, 2017|FRCEM Primary, FRCEM PrImary Blog|

FRCEM Primary Revision Essentials: Five and five useful FOAMed articles for your FRCEM Primary revision!

frcem primary revision

FRCEM Primary Revision

Below is a list of ten educational modules, five from RCEM learning and five from Doctors.net.uk Education, which have a basic science focus and are useful for FRCEM primary revision. If you haven’t found RCEM learning before, it is a great free resource from the College and found at www.rcemlearning.co.uk/landing/.  Modules take about an hour to complete and can be added to your CPD folder! If you are not a member already you will need to register to view the Doctors.net.uk education modules. 

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2017-04-10T09:12:37+00:00 April 10th, 2017|FRCEM Primary, FRCEM PrImary Blog|

Core Physiology: A shunt too far.

Question.

Which one of the following statements is true regarding the pathophysiology of pulmonary shunts?

a. Alveolar ventilation and the alveolar–arterial (A-a) gradient are both increased
b. Alveolar ventilation and gas exchange are both reduced
c. Alveolar ventilation is decreased and dead space is increased
d. Alveolar ventilation is normal while perfusion is decreased
e. Alveolar ventilation and the alveolar–arterial (A-a) gradient are both unaffected.

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2017-03-31T19:42:39+00:00 March 30th, 2017|FRCEM Primary, FRCEM PrImary Blog|

Revision essentials: Five and five useful FOAMed articles for your FRCEM Primary revision!

Below is a list of ten educational modules, five from RCEM learning and five from Doctors.net.uk Education, which have a basic science focus and are useful for FRCEM primary revision. If you haven’t found RCEM learning before, it is a great free resource from the College and found at www.rcemlearning.co.uk/landing/.  Modules take about an hour to complete and can be added to your CPD folder! If you are not a member already you will need to register to view the Doctors.net.uk education modules. 

(more…)

2017-03-30T07:58:18+00:00 March 29th, 2017|FRCEM Primary, FRCEM PrImary Blog|

Core Pharmacology: Understanding the adverse effects of Lithium.

Question.

Which one of the following statements regarding lithium (Li) is FALSE?

a. It has a narrow therapeutic range
b. Lithium levels are increased by drugs which induce cytochrome p450
c. Serum lithium levels for monitoring should be measured 12 hours after the last dose
d. Lithium inhibits the action of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
e. Hypothyroidism is a frequent adverse effect of lithium therapy

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2017-03-29T11:09:24+00:00 March 29th, 2017|FRCEM Primary, FRCEM PrImary Blog|

Core physiology: When the pulse oximeter and blood gas disagree!

Question.

A normally well 17yr old woman is noted to have marked peripheral cyanosis. Pulse oximetry shows oxygen saturations of 79% though a follow up arterial blood gas records a normal Pa02. Which of the following conditions might explain the discrepancy between clinical signs, pulse oximetry and arterial PaO2?

    a.Carbon monoxide poisoning
    b.Methaemoglobinaemia
    c.Red nail polish
    d.Cyanide poisoning
    e.Peripheral vasoconstriction

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2017-03-29T11:08:02+00:00 March 29th, 2017|FRCEM Primary, FRCEM PrImary Blog|

Core pathology: Antigen and anaphylaxis.

Question.

A young boy with known peanut allergy presents with an anaphylactic reaction after eating Thai food. Which one of the following statements is most true of the pathophysiology of this condition in this boy?

    a.Antigen binding to surface IgM has triggered mast cell degranulation
    b.Antigen binding to surface IgE has triggered mast cell degranulation
    c.Antigen has directly stimulated neutrophil mediated inflammation
    d.Antigen has directly stimulated mast cell degranulation
    e.Antigen binding to surface Ig has triggered neutrophil degranulation

(more…)

2017-03-29T11:05:10+00:00 March 29th, 2017|FRCEM Primary, FRCEM PrImary Blog|